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BAT Brown Adipose Tissue Definition
What Is BAT Brown Adipose Tissue?

Brown fat is specialized for heat production and the adipocytes have many mitochondria in which an inner membrane protein can act as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation allowing rapid thermogenesis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue that is present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. BATís primary function is to generate body heat. In contrast to white adipocytes (fat cells), which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of mitochondria. Brown fat also contains more capillaries than white fat, since it has a greater need for oxygen than most tissues. The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat; physiologically, both the heat produced and the resulting decrease in metabolic efficiency can be of significance. Both the acute activity of the tissue, i.e., the heat production, and the recruitment process in the tissue (that results in a higher thermogenic capacity) are under the control of norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves. Heat production from brown adipose tissue is activated whenever the organism is in need of extra heat, e.g., postnatally, during entry into a febrile state, and during arousal from hibernation, and the rate of thermogenesis is centrally controlled via a pathway initiated in the hypothalamus.

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